Abstinence Violation Effect AVE What It Is & Relapse Prevention Strategies
The RP model proposes that at the cessation of a habit, a client feels self-efficacious with regard to the unwanted behaviour and that this perception of self-efficacy stems from learned and practiced skills3. In a prospective study among both men and women being treated for alcohol dependence using the Situational Confidence Questionnaire, higher self-efficacy scores were correlated to a longer interval for relapse to alcohol use8. The relationship between self-efficacy and relapse is possibly bidirectional, meaning that individuals who are more successful report greater self-efficacy and individuals who have lapsed report lower self-efficacy4. Chronic stressors may also overlap between self-efficacy and other areas of intrapersonal determinants, like emotional states, by presenting more adaptational strain on the treatment-seeking client4. His father and maternal uncle were heavy drinkers (predispositions to drinking, social learning). Rajiv was anxious since childhood (early learning and temperamental contributions) and avoided social situations (poor coping).
She is a Certified Recovery Residence Administrator with The Florida Certification Board and licensed Notary Public in the state of Florida. The result of this lackluster planning is that we recognize future disturbances, yet do nothing to truly resolve them. If we feel stress, anger or depression, we do not find healthy ways of confronting these feelings. We instead view these emotions as justifications of the negative cognition experienced under AVE. Our hopelessness and our instinctive desire to give up were spot-on, or else we would be happy all the time. Relapsing isn’t a matter of one’s lack of willpower, and it isn’t the end of the road.
Expanding the continuum of substance use disorder treatment: Nonabstinence approaches
Laurel, as the Director of Corporate Compliance for USR, is responsible for ensuring that the facility follows all federal and state regulatory requirements, accreditation standards and industry best practices. Laurel has over twenty years’ experience in legal and regulatory affairs in both the public and private sectors. She attended the University of Kansas where she studied political science, and she is designated by the Council on Licensure, Enforcement and Regulation (CLEAR) as a Certified National Investigator and Inspector (CNII). Prior to joining Amethyst, she served as the Director of Enforcement for a state regulatory body.
For example, despite being widely cited as a primary rationale for nonabstinence treatment, the extent to which offering nonabstinence options increases treatment utilization (or retention) is unknown. In addition to evaluating nonabstinence treatments specifically, researchers could help move the field forward by increased attention to nonabstinence goals more broadly. For example, all studies with SUD populations could include brief questionnaires assessing short-and long-term substance use goals, and treatment researchers could report the extent to which nonabstinence goals are honored or permitted in their study interventions and contexts, regardless of treatment type. There is also a need for updated research examining standards of practice in community SUD treatment, including acceptance of non-abstinence goals and facility policies such as administrative discharge. Lack of consensus around target outcomes also presents a challenge to evaluating the effectiveness of nonabstinence treatment. Experts generally recommend that SUD treatment studies report substance use as well as related consequences, and select primary outcomes based on the study sample and goals (Donovan et al., 2012; Kiluk et al., 2019).
3. Summary of the state of the literature
Important features common to these groups include low program barriers (e.g., drop-in groups, few rules) and inclusiveness of clients with difficult presentations (Little & Franskoviak, 2010). AA was established in 1935 as a nonprofessional mutual aid group for people who desire abstinence from alcohol, and its 12 Steps became integrated in SUD treatment programs in the 1940s and 1950s with the emergence of the Minnesota Model of treatment (White & Kurtz, 2008). https://ecosoberhouse.com/ The Minnesota Model involved inpatient SUD treatment incorporating principles of AA, with a mix of professional and peer support staff (many of whom were members of AA), and a requirement that patients attend AA or NA meetings as part of their treatment (Anderson, McGovern, & DuPont, 1999; McElrath, 1997). This model both accelerated the spread of AA and NA and helped establish the abstinence-focused 12-Step program at the core of mainstream addiction treatment.
- Little attention was given to whether people in abstinence-focused treatments endorsed abstinence goals themselves, or whether treatment could help reduce substance use and related problems for those who did not desire (or were not ready for) abstinence.
- In a meta-analysis by Carroll, more than 24 RCT’s have been evaluated for the effectiveness of RP on substance use outcomes.
- An additional concern is that the lack of research supporting the efficacy of established interventions for achieving nonabstinence goals presents a barrier to implementation.
Mindfulness based interventions or third wave therapies have shown promise in addressing specific aspects of addictive behaviours such as craving, negative affect, impulsivity, distress tolerance. These interventions integrate both cognitive behavioural and mindfulness based strategies. The greatest strength of cognitive behavioural programmes is that they are individualized, and have a wide applicability. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a structured, time limited, evidence based psychological therapy for a wide range of emotional and behavioural disorders, including addictive behaviours1,2. CBT belongs to a family of interventions that are focused on the identification and modification of dysfunctional cognitions in order to modify negative emotions and behaviours.
4. Consequences of abstinence-only treatment
As of 2020, the number of drug-involved overdose deaths reached an all-time high of 91,799, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. At least 74.8% of those deaths involved opioids, 14% involved heroin, 26% involved psychostimulants, primarily…
- Unfortunately, few quantitative, survey-based studies have included substance use during treatment as a potential reason for treatment noncompletion, representing a significant gap in this body of literature (for a review, see Brorson, Ajo Arnevik, Rand-Hendriksen, & Duckert, 2013).
- These groups tend to include individuals who use a range of substances and who endorse a range of goals, including reducing substance use and/or substance-related harms, controlled/moderate use, and abstinence (Little, 2006).
- For example, at a large outpatient SUD treatment center in Amsterdam, goal-aligned treatment for drug and alcohol use involves a version of harm reduction psychotherapy that integrates MI and CBT approaches, and focuses on motivational enhancement, self-control training, and relapse prevention (Schippers & Nelissen, 2006).
- Indeed, a prominent harm reduction psychotherapist and researcher, Rothschild, argues that the harm reduction approach represents a “third wave of addiction treatment” which follows, and is replacing, the moral and disease models (Rothschild, 2015a).
The transition from slip or lapse to relapse involves the “abstinence violation effect,” which results from a state of cognitive dissonance regarding the nonabstinent behavior and the individual’s image of being abstinent. This dissonance can be reduced by either changing the behavior or changing abstinence violation effect the image, and characteristically in this population is resolved by the latter. This model has received a good deal of empirical support and has the merit of dismantling the process of relapse and exploring subjective and cognitive variables in a manner that has important treatment implications.